Ino Tadataka


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Inoo Tadataka, Inō 伊能忠敬 Ino Tadataka, Inoh Tadataka
(1745 - 1818)

"Though he did not learn surveying until age 55, Ino traversed the entire country by foot, making the first map of Japan that was accurate to modern surveying standards."
source : Chiba, 40,000 Years of Culture

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a Japanese surveyor and cartographer. He is known for completing the first map of Japan created using modern surveying techniques.

Early life
Inō was born in Kujūkuri, a coastal village in Kazusa Province, in what is now Chiba Prefecture, and was adopted (aged seventeen) by the prosperous Inō family of Sawara (now a district of Katori, Chiba), a town in Shimōsa Province. He ran the family business, expanding its sake brewing and rice-trading concerns, until he retired at the age of 49. At this time he moved to Edo and became a pupil of astronomer Takahashi Yoshitoki, from whom he learned Western astronomy, geography, and mathematics.

In 1800, after nearly five years of study, the Shogunate permitted Inō to perform a survey of the country using his own money. This task, which consumed the remaining seventeen years of his life, covered the entire coastline and some of the interior of each of the Japanese home islands. During this period Inō reportedly spent 3,736 days making measurements (and travelled 34,913 kilometres), stopping regularly to present the Shogun with maps reflecting his survey's progress. He produced a number of detailed maps (some at a scale of 1:36,000, others at 1:216,000) of select parts of Japan, mostly in Kyūshū and Hokkaidō.

Inō's magnum opus, his 1:216,000 map of the entire coastline of Japan, remained unfinished at his death in 1818, but was completed by his surveying team in 1821. An atlas collecting all of his survey work, entitled Dai Nihon Enkai Yochi Zenzu (ja:大日本沿海輿地全図 Maps of Japan's Coastal Area), was published that year. It had three pages of large scale maps at 1:432,000, showed the entire country on eight pages at 1:216,000 and 214 pages of select coastal areas in fine detail at 1:36,000. The Inō-zu (Inō's maps), many of which are accurate to 1/1000 of a degree, remained the definitive maps of Japan for nearly a century, and maps based on his work were in use as late as 1924.
In addition to his maps,
Inō produced several scholarly works on surveying and mathematics, including Chikyū sokuenjutsu mondō and Kyūkatsuen hassenhō.

Inō is celebrated as one of the architects of modern Japan. A museum, dedicated to his memory, was opened in his former home in Sawara, and in 1996 was designated a National Historic Site. In November 1995 the Japanese government issued a commemorative 80 Yen postage stamp, showing Inō's portrait and a section of his map of Edo. Most of the complete copies of the atlas have been lost or destroyed (often by fire), although a mostly-complete copy of the large-scale map was discovered in the collection of the U.S. Library of Congress in 2001.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

He was even choosen for a Google Logo in Japan.


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Inō Tadataka (Inō Chūkei) (1745-1818)
was born in Kazusa Province in 1745. He was adopted as the heir of the Inō family in the city of Sawara. He managed the family brewery until he was fifty. After he retired he began to study astronomy, geography and mathematics and began drawing maps. Between 1800 and 1816 he spent 3,736 days taking measurements and mapping Japan. His maps are accurate to about a thousandth of a degree.
Tadataka's maps were not completed during his lifetime. In 1821 the Dai Nihon enkai yochi zenzu, an atlas of Japan based on his surveys was completed. The atlas contained 214 sheets on a scale of 1:36,000, 8 sheets on a scale of 1:216,000 and 3 sheets on a scale of 1:432,000.
Though Inō's maps were not in use during the Edo period, they were made the standard maps of the country in the Meiji era. Maps published by the British Navy in the 1860's were based on Inō's maps, and maps based on Inō's were used as late as 1924 by the Japanese military.

The stamp was issued in November 1995 to observe the 250th anniversary of the birth of Ino Tadataka. The map depicted on the stamp is a portion of a map attributed to Tadataka. The map shows an area centered, more or less on Edo (now Tokyo), and shows the province of Kazuza where Takataka was born. The city of Sawara is slightly north and just west of the the point on the right of the land in the map.
The portrait of Tadataka is from a contemporary painting.
- source : sio.midco.net/dansmapstamps -


Ino Tadataka Museum 伊能忠敬記念館 Inoh Tadataka Museum
1722-1 Sawara-i, Katori City, Chiba Prefecture 香取市
- source : city.katori.lg.jp/museum -

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Japan's Master Cartographer: The Inoh Tadataka Museum
Inoh Tadataka (1745-1818),
a wealthy Sawara rice and sake merchant, had ancestors with a penchant for surveying and mapmaking, and perhaps thus influenced he developed a fascination with astronomy in middle age. Retiring from his business at 49, he moved to Edo, where he studied for five years with the Shogunate's official astronomer, then set out on the first of ten surveying expeditions the length and breadth of Japan. That initial effort, to make the first accurate map of the northern island of Ezo (now Hokkaido), so impressed the Shogunate that it commissioned him for several more expeditions. Inoh traveled and surveyed almost incessantly for 17 years until shortly before his death; his masterwork, a detailed map of the entire Japanese archipelago, was published posthumously in 1821. The soon-to-be legendary "Inoh Map" (Inoh-zu) was so accurate that it set the standard for maps of Japan, both domestic and foreign, for another century -- German and British cartographers copied it too.

The Inoh Tadataka Museum is Sawara's spacious, well-organized tribute to this remarkable favorite son. Fortunately for visitors in transit from Narita, it offers reasonably detailed English descriptions of its exhibits, most of which are, naturally, maps, of all sizes and scales. One of the most revealing is an electronic display that superimposes the Inoh Map on a recent Landsat photo of Japan. Aside from some slight longitudinal deviation (longitude, which Inoh tried to derive from observations of solar and lunar eclipses, was much harder to measure than latitude), the Inoh Map is an astonishingly close match to the satellite's.

Inoh Tadataka's map of Japan, 1821

Nearly as fascinating as Inoh's maps are the museum's charts of the labyrinthine routes he took on his expeditions, zigzagging his way up and down the archipelago with a band of surveyors, retainers and guards. (It is interesting to see how Inoh's mapping accuracy improved as the Shogun increased his budgetary support.)
- source : Alan Gleason -


伊能忠敬 : 清水靖夫

伊能忠敬 : 大石学 / 西本鶏介

- Reference - 伊能忠敬 -

- Reference - English -

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