Showing posts with label - - - TTT - - -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - TTT - - -. Show all posts

18/04/2018

Hayakawa Noritsugu Tokuji

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Hayakawa Noritsugu 早川徳次(のりつぐ)
(1881 - 1942)
(The characters 徳次 can also be read Tokuji, see below.)

He is renowned for funding the construction of Japan's first subway system, now known as the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, which opened in 1927.



「地下鉄の父」 The Father of the Subway in Tokyo


- quote -
Noritsugu Hayakawa, builder of Asia’s first underground railway, is considered the father of subways in Japan.
Hayakawa
was an apprentice of “railway king” Kaichiro Nezu, the founder of Tobu Railways.
Impressed by the subways he saw while touring Europe in the 1910s, upon his return to Japan Hayakawa began fiercely lobbying for Tokyo to build its own system.
After obtaining a license, he established the Tokyo Underground Railway Co. in 1920. The first underground rail link connected Asakusa and Ueno in 1927.
This is now known as the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line.
- source : japantimes.co.jp/news/2010... -





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だるまは鼻の下にひげを生やし . . . Daruma with a beard in his honor - 2018

A group of about 50 local people has formed in 2017, making papermachee Daruma dolls.



- quote
日本で最初に地下鉄を建設し、「地下鉄の父」と呼ばれた笛吹市出身の早川徳次(のりつぐ)(1881~1942)の住宅の見学会が7日に開かれる。地元の市民グループ「早川徳次ふるさと後援会」が主催し、ひげを生やしていた徳次の顔をかたどったミニだるまづくりを初めて計画。ふるさとの偉人に親しみを感じてもらい、地域の活性化にもつなげたい考えだ。
後援会は2017年に発足し、会員約50人。地元出身の早川徳次の功績紹介と地域振興を目的に活動している。早川邸は「早川家住宅主屋」として国の登録有形文化財に選ばれている。後援会が年2回開く見学会では、普段は非公開の邸内を見ることができる。
ミニだるまを考案したのは甲州市在住の自営業、渡辺麻世さん(28)。アクセサリーなどを趣味で手作りしている。昨年夏、知人の後援会メンバーと会食した際、徳次の業績について話を聞いた。祖父母の家が早川邸の近くにあり、「身近なところにすごい人がいたんだ」と驚き、何か手伝えることがあればと思いついた。



だるまは鼻の下にひげを生やし…
source : asahi.com/articles...


. DARUMA MUSEUM Japan .



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Hayakawa Tokuji 早川徳次
(1893 - 1980)



- quote -
Tokuji Hayakawa (早川 徳次 Hayakawa Tokuji, November 3, 1893 - June 24, 1980)
was a Japanese businessman and the founder of Hayakawa Kinzoku Kōgyō (the present-day Sharp Corporation). He invented and patented the “Tokubijō” belt buckle in 1912 (a belt which can fasten without perforating) and invented the "Ever Ready Sharp" mechanical pencil (from which his company would later get its name from) in 1915.

The success of the “Tokubijō” belt buckle led to Hayakawa starting his own metallurgical processing, which then developed into the present-day Sharp Corporation.

Tokuji Hayakawa was born in Tokyo in 1893. Due to difficult domestic circumstances, he was adopted by the Ideno family. It was not until he grew up, however, that he learned of this. He left primary school after second grade due to his family’s poverty, and was apprenticed to a maker of metallic ornaments. He worked diligently there to improve both his skill in metalwork and understanding of the trade, earning the trust of his master.

Though the buckle had been used since ancient times for such accessories as armor and shoes, it started to be used on belts for boys’ trousers in the 15th century and came to be used in women’s clothes in the 19th century. It took two forms: practical and decorated. When Hayakawa launched his buckle in 1912, demand in Japan for the buckle increased with the spread of Western-style fashions.

Hayakawa and other artisans, however, had not yet had a chance to wear Western-style clothes and belts.
Hayakawa happened to notice a silent film actor whose belt had come undone. This inspired him to spend time after work inventing a new belt that could be fastened to any length.

As a result, he developed a buckle that used a roller to fasten a belt without puncturing it. His master admired his inventiveness and recommended that Tokuji apply for a patent. He suggested the name “Tokubijō” adopting one character of Tokuji.

The first order for the Tokubijō buckle was huge — 33 grosses or 4,752 in total. Because of the pressures to deliver his product on time, Tokuji decided to go independent. He borrowed most of the capital independently and launched his own shop in September, 1912. He introduced industrial presses, hired workmen and delivered new orders with no interruption. He was able to promptly retire his debt. He continued to improve his manufacturing process and expand his business into a bigger plant.

In 1913, Hayakawa acquired the patent of an innovative water faucet, and in 1915, he developed the prototype of the sharp automatic pencil still sold today. Afterwards he demonstrated managerial genius, expanding his enterprise into electronics manufacturing of world-famous radios, tape-recorders and televisions. He was active in social welfare programs. He died in 1980 at the age of 86.
- source : wikipedia -

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20/11/2017

Taira no Atsumori

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Taira no Atsumori 平敦盛
(1169 - 1184)



- quote -
a samurai famous for his early death in single combat. At the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani,
Atsumori engaged Kumagai Naozane, an ally of the Minamoto, and was killed. Kumagai had a son the same age as Atsumori. Kumagai's great remorse as told in the tale, coupled with his taking of priestly vows, caused this otherwise unremarkable event to become well known for its tragedy.
- - - The Death of Atsumori as told in the Tales of the Heike
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .

須磨寺やふかぬ笛きく木下やみ
Sumadera ya fukanu fue kiku koshita yami

temple Sumadera -
I listen to the flute nobody plays
in the darkness under the trees

Tr. Gabi Greve



In memory of Taira no Atsumori 平敦盛 and his flute now kept at the temple.
Samurai had to learn all kinds of aristocratic things to be able to please their masters.
Atsumori was famous for his flute playing,, aoba no fue 青葉の笛.

Paul Muldoon, Basho and the Temple Sumadera
... In the real war almost two hundred years after The Tale of Genji, the war epically recorded in The Tale of the Heike, the young Taira general Atsumori was killed by a Minamoto warrior named Noazane, near Suma. Noazane, father of a warrior son the same age as his victim, then discovered on Atsumori’s body a flute, and, reflecting on the insanity of a world in which such killing takes place, he became a Buddhist monk to pray for Atsumori’s spirit. That “Green-Leaf Flute” remains a treasure of Suma Temple to this day.
(The temple was founded in 786, some 400 years before the war and 900 years before Bashô’s visit.)
Bashô plays with the tradition of sadness, isolation, death, and giving up the world at Suma, making the sound of the unplayed flute a metaphor for Zen koans (on silent flutes, clapping, and so on) that lightly dissolves into the pleasant shade of a tree under summer’s sun in this desolate place. But note how that shade suggests again the “Green-Leaf Flute”—and the death of Atsumori. Light as the last line of Bashô’s poem may seem on first reading, it grows deeper with the next. ...
by William J. Higginson

- More information about this haiku
. Atsumori and the Flute .


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無官太夫平敦盛 Mukan no Taiyu Taira Atsumori
歌川国芳 Utagawa Kuniyoshi

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. Bihoku ningyoo 尾北人形 dolls from Bihoku - Aichi .


source : www007.upp.so-net.ne.jp/kyoudoningyou




about 20 cm high. Made by 岩間房太郎 Iwama Fusataro




. Asahi tsuchi ningyoo 旭土人形 Asahi Clay Dolls - Aichi .




. Okkawa tsuchi ningyoo 乙川土人形 clay dolls from Okkawa - Aichi .


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Hyogo 兵庫県
神戸市 Kobe

tsue 杖 walking staff
At the Shrine 生田神社 Ikuta Jinja in Kobe Atsumori planted his walking staff into the ground and it grew into a bamboo.


- quote -
Ikuta Atsumori (生田敦盛), sometimes known simply as Ikuta,
is one of many Noh plays derived from the story of Taira no Atsumori, a young Taira clan samurai who was killed in the 1184 battle of Ichi-no-Tani. Taking place largely at Ikuta Shrine, near the scene of the battle, it centers on Atsumori's fictional son, who seeks to meet his father's ghost.



- - - Plot summary
A monk opens the play, introducing himself as a disciple of famous priest Hōnen Shōnin, and explaining how Hōnen once found a baby boy in a box at the Kamo Shrine in Kyoto. The monk says that Hōnen raised the boy, and, that many years later, a young woman came forth revealing herself to be the boy's mother, and explaining that his father was Taira no Atsumori. As the boy now longed to see his father's face, Hōnen suggested that he should go to Kamo and pray there for a week.
The monk concludes his introduction by explaining that this is the last day of that week, and that he has come with the boy to Kamo once again, to pray. The boy then tells the monk that he had a dream while praying, in which a voice told him to go to Ikuta Shrine in order to see his father.
Traveling to Ikuta, the pair come upon a small hut, where they decide to ask to spend the night. The man in the hut explains that he is the ghost of Atsumori. Through the intervention of the Kamo kami, Atsumori explains, he has been granted by Yama, the lord of death, a brief opportunity to appear here in the mortal world, to meet his son. He regales his son with the tale of the battle of Ichi-no-tani, in which he was killed. A messenger of Yama then appears, and takes Atsumori with him, back to the realm of the shura, the hell of constant battle.
- - - Taira no Atsumori
Atsumori is a complex character. He is a great warrior from the Taira family but he also shows a sensitive side with his son. His philosophy on life also seems to contrast during the story. Before the meeting of father and son, Atsumori recites the five attributes of "beauty, perception, knowledge, motion, consciousness". He talks about how the body is weak and it is the soul that guards it from corruption. Yet, when he meets his son, he suddenly becomes concerned about the ratty garments he wears. The idea being that someone who comes from the Taira line should have a better presentation. When talking to his son, he has great pride in telling the story of the Taira family at its peak. As soon as he speaks of the downfall of the great Taira family, he is called back to Hell and just like the Taira family, he fades away.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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- reference : nichibun yokai database -

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- Reference - 平敦盛 -
- Reference - taira no atsumori -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

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- - - #tairanoatsumori #tairaatsumori - - -
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04/10/2017

Toyotomi Taiko Hideyoshi

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Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 / Taiko Hideyoshi 太閤秀吉
(1537 - 1598)
Hashiba Hideyoshi 羽柴秀吉 




- quote
A daimyo in the Sengoku period who unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. Hideyoshi is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier."
More HIDEYOSHI in the WIKIPEDIA !


February 2, 1536, or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598
kigo for mid-autumn

Taikoo Ki 太閤忌 (たいこうき) Taiko Memorial Day
Hideyoshi Ki 秀吉忌(ひでよしき)Hideyoshi Memorial Day




. Memorial Days of Famous People .


. Shogun Daruma Dolls 武将達磨 .

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- quote -
Toyokuni Shrine 豊国神社 Toyokuni-jinja
a Shinto shrine located in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It was built in 1599 to commemorate Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It is the location of the first tamaya (a Shinto altar for ancestor worship) ever constructed, which was later destroyed by the Tokugawa clan.
This shrine is the official tomb and shrine of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who died September 18, 1598 in Kyoto.
Nobles, priests, warriors, and townspeople gathered at the shrine to celebrate the anniversary of Hideyoshi's apotheosis with banquets, musical recitals, and boisterous festivity. The shrine was closed by Tokugawa Ieyasu in June 1615 "to discourage these unseemly displays of loyalty to a man he had eclipsed."
The Meiji Emperor
directed that the shrine be restored in Keiō 4, the 6th day of the 6th month (April 28, 1868). At that time, the shrine area was expanded slightly by encompassing a small parcel of land which had been part of the adjacent Hōkō-ji.
In 1897,
the tercentenary of Hideyoshi was celebrated at this site.
- source : widipedia -

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. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art from Japan . 



source : sakigake-one.sakura.ne.jp。。。

秀吉と三法師 Hideyoshi and Sanboshi (Samboshi), one year old
about 32 cm high, made by 美濃島 Minoya 鈴太郎 Suzutaro

Oda Samboshi Hidenobu (1582-1602)
Son of Oda Nobutada, Grandson of Oda Nobunaga


- quote -
Oda Nobunaga had not intended to die as early as he did - he was assassinated in 1582 - and, thus, did not appoint a successor.
Hideyoshi, taking advantage of Oda Nobunaga's death, saw that Nobunaga's two sons were quarreling over succession, and, as Nobunaga's top general, placed Nobunaga's infant grandson, Samboshi in charge of the realm. Thus, Hideyoshi was able to rise to power more easily because of the lack of a leader in the Oda family. ...
- source : samurai-archives.com... -


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Hideyoshi clay doll from 尾北地方 the Bihoku region, Aichi. About 23 cm high.




Hideyoshi clay doll from 棚尾 Tanao, Aichi. About 34, 5 cm high.
Made by 鈴木初太郎 Suzuki Hatsutaro


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Hideyoshi 太閤秀吉 - 小幡土人形 Obata clay doll, Shiga
Made by 細井文造 Hosoi Bunzo

. Hideyoshi doll by Hosoi Gengo 細居源悟 .


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source : yoshitoku.co.jp/user_data...

武者人形 Musha Ningyo doll for the Boy's Festival in May.

. . . CLICK here for more Musha Ningyo Photos !

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Hideyoshi

鳴かぬなら 鳴かせてみせよう ホトトギス
nakanu nara nakasete miseyoo hototogisu

If the bird does not sing,
I will make it sing!
Hototogisu


The famous comparison of three famous warlords
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu
and their approach to make a cuckoo (hototogisu) sing:

Here is the famous story to shed light on the temperament of the three most famous warlords in Japanese history:
When confronted with a nightingale in a cage, which would not sing, each had his own approach to this situation.

. Hototogisu and the three warlords  


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. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .


................................................................................. Wakayama 和歌山県
伊都郡 Ito district 高野町 Koya

meidoo 鳴動 heavenly rumbling
Hideyoshi went to 高野山 Mount Koyasan with 観世太夫 Kanze Dayu, a Noh actor.
On this holy mountain, it was forbidden to blow the flute, but Hideyoshi made the actor blow it anyway.
And then there was a strong heavenly rumbling in the valley, storm, heavy rain and thunder as a reaction from the sky above.


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- reference : nichibun yokai database -
33 to explore (01)

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- Reference - 豊臣秀吉 -
- Reference - Toyotomi Hideyoshi -


. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .

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- - - #hideyoshi #tototomihedeyoshi #sanboshi #samboshi - - -
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14/08/2017

Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takenouchi

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Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi
Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

(? - ?) he lived for 317 years
Maybe born during the reign of Emperor Keikō 景行天皇 Keiko Tenno (13 BC - 130 BC).
He passed away in the fifty-fifth year of 仁徳天皇 Emperor Nintoku (257 - 933).




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- quote -
Takeshiuchi no Sukune
Also written with the Chinese characters 建内宿禰, and sometimes read Takenouchi no Sukune.
A legendary personality called one of the three meritorious subjects at the time of the Punitive Campaign against the Three Korean Kingdoms, and regarded as the ancestor of twenty-eight clans including Ki, Katsuragi, Heguri, Kose, and Soga.
- A grandson of Imperial Prince Hikofutōshimakoto no Mikoto, his father was Yanushioshiotakeokokoro no Mikoto, and his mother, Princess Kagehime. He served five legendary emperors, including Keikō (legendary reign 71-130), Seimu (131-190), Chūai (192-200), Ōjin (270-310), and Nintoku (313-399).
He was known to be particularly meritorious in serving Empress Jingū (legendary reign 209-269). He led a military campaign to the northeast in the twenty-fifth year of Emperor Keikō, then suppressed the Ezo peoples two years later. During the reign of Emperor Seimu, he became the first Great Minister (Ō-omi). He was significant in supporting Emperor Chūai and Empress Jingū during the Punitive Campaign against the Three Korean Kingdoms.
According to legend, at the end of his service spanning some two hundred and forty-four years, covering five imperial reigns, he passed away in the fifty-fifth year of Emperor Nintoku.
Takeshiuchi is also said to have performed the religious role of a saniwa, a spirit medium receiving divine oracles. The twenty-eight clans descended from him were said to have dispersed throughout the country and prospered.
He is enshrined as a kami in 宇倍神社 Ube Shrine in Iwami District, Tottori Prefecture, as well as at local Hachiman Shrines.
- reference source : Shimazu Norifumi, Kokugakuin 2006 -

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- quote
a legendary Japanese hero-statesman, and is a Shinto kami.
- - - - - Life
Takenouchi no Sukune was supposedly the son of Princess Kagehime, and is said to be grandson to Imperial Prince Hikofutodhimakoto no Mikoto. Also descended from Emperor Kōgen, Takenouchi no Sukune served under five legendary emperors, Emperor Keikō, Emperor Seimu, Emperor Chūai, Emperor Ōjin, and Emperor Nintoku, but was perhaps best known for his service as Grand Minister to the Regent Jingu, with whom he supposedly invaded Korea. While Jingu was regent to her son, Ojin, Takenouchi was accused of treason. He underwent the "ordeal of boiling water" as a way to prove his innocence.
In addition to his martial services to these emperors, he was reputedly also a 沙庭 saniwa, or spirit medium.
- - - - - Legacy
Twenty-eight Japanese clans are said to be descended from Takenouchi no Sukune, including Takeuchi and Soga. He is a legendary figure, and is said to have drunk daily from a sacred well, and this helped him to live to be 280 years old. Further, he is enshrined as a Kami at the Ube shrine, in the Iwami district of the Tottori Prefecture and at local Hachiman shrines. His portrait has also appeared on the Japanese yen, and dolls of him are popular Children’s Day gifts.
- Takenouchi no Sukune
is grandfather of Takenouchi no Matori (竹内真鳥) who created manuscript books of Takenouchi monjo (竹内文書) which depicted ancient Japan before the era of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki. The copies still exist in Kōsō Kōtai Jingū shrine in Ibaraki prefecture.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents



- quote -
It is our privilege to share the wisdom of Takenouchi Documents on behalf of Wado Kosaka who is one of the prominent researchers of the Takenouchi Documents.
- reference source : takenouchi-documents.com -




竹内文書でわかった太古の地球共通文化は【縄文JAPAN】だった
『竹内文書 世界を一つにする地球最古の聖典

高坂和導 Kosaka Wado (著), 三和導代 (著)

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武内宿禰と仁徳天皇 with emperor Nintoku Tenno (290 - 399)


Takenouchi no Sukune lived 超長寿者 a long long life, he is said to have become 317 years old.
(Nobody takes that serious in our day, though . .. )

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- quote -
Empress Jingu and Takenouchi no Sukune
Another principal musha-ningyô is a character from Japan's remote history: Empress Jingu (170-269). The only female figure regularly associated with Boy's Day, she is paired with her faithful minister/ general Takenouchi no Sukune. The Nohongi (compiled in 720) states that her husband, Chuai Ten'no the 14th emperor of Japan, died just prior to invading Korea. Debate over the invasion had been strong and Jingu had been an ardent supporter.
. Musha ningyoo 武者人形 Samurai Dolls .

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神功皇后と武内宿禰 / 竹内宿弥 Empress Jingu and Takenouchi no Sukune


source : h2.dion.ne.jp/~hushimi/tuti/nakano...
Nakano ningyoo 中野人形(長野県) Nakano Dolls from Nagano prefecture

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source : upp.so-net.ne.jp/kyoudoningyou...
Tsukimoshi ningyoo 附馬牛人形 Dolls from Tsukimosh, Iwate prefecture


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source : sakigake-one.sakura.ne.jp/oldtoy...
武内宿禰 Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi
(15,1 cm high)

. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art from Japan . 
Shibahara tsuchi ningyoo 芝原土人形 Shibahara clay dolls - Chiba



about 30 cm high
clay doll from Kagoshima, 帖佐土人形 Chosa clay doll


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提燈祭り Chochin Lantern Festival
埼玉県久喜市 Saitama, Kuki Town



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武内宿禰(山車人形展)Exhibition of Festival Floats
千葉県市川市 Chiba, Ichikawa Town


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"Takenouchi no Sukune Meets the Dragon King of the Sea"
1875-1879 ~ Bronze and Glass Sculpture.
This sculpture was created by skilled metalworking artists who looked back to the legendary founders of Japan to celebrate not only their own skills but also the age and prestige of their nation.
Takenouchi dreamed he was called by heaven to destroy a terrible sea monster that was terrorizing the waters for humans and sea creatures alike. Takenouchi undertook this task with great valor, and the Dragon King, Riujin, emerged from the deep with an attendant to thank him and present him with a jewel that gave control over the seas.
Ryūjin, The Dragon God of the Sea, who lives in the submerged Palace called the Ryūgū-jō castle.
He is usually represented in the shape of a very old man, with long beard, and with a dragon coiled on his head or back. His countenance is fierce; he carries in hand the tide-ruling gems.
(Foundation for the Arts Collection, Dallas Museum of Art.)


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. Koma-jinja 高麗神社 Koma Shrine "Korea Shrine" . - Saitama
The enshrined deities are Koma no Koshiki Jakko, Sarutahiko no Mikoto and Takenouchi no Sukune.


. Kehi Jinguu 気比神宮 Shrine Kehi Jingu .
It enshrines the seven deities:
Isasawake-no-Mikoto, Emperor Chuai, Empress Jingu-Kogo, Emperor Ohjin, Takenouchi-no-Sukune-no-Mikoto, Yamato-Takeru-no-Mikoto, and Tamahime-no-Mikoto.


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- reference source : kotobank.jp/word... -

- Reference - 武内宿禰 -
- Reference - takenouchi no sukune -

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05/06/2015

Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

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Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉
inu kuboo, Inu-Kubō 犬公方 Inu Kubo, the Dog Shogun

(1646 - 1709)

and his mother, Keisho-In.



- quote
the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

He is known for instituting animal protection laws, particularly for dogs. This earned him the nickname of "the dog shogun."
- snip -
In 1691, Engelbert Kaempfer visited Edo as part of the annual Dutch embassy from Dejima in Nagasaki. He journeyed from Nagasaki to Osaka, to Kyoto, and there to Edo. Kaempfer gives us information on Japan during the early reign of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. As the Dutch embassy entered Edo in 1692, they asked to have an audience with Shogun Tsunayoshi. While they were waiting for approval, a fire destroyed six hundred houses in Edo, and the audience was postponed. Tsunayoshi and several of the ladies of the court sat behind reed screens, while the Dutch embassy sat in front of them. Tsunayoshi took an interest in Western matters, and apparently asked them to talk and sing with one another for him to see how Westerners behaved. Tsunayoshi later put on a Noh drama for them.
- snip -
Owing to religious fundamentalism, Tsunayoshi sought protection for living beings in the later parts of his rule. In the 1690s and first decade of the 18th century, Tsunayoshi, who was born in the Year of the Dog, thought he should take several measures concerning dogs. A collection of edicts released daily, known as the Edicts on Compassion for Living Things (生類憐みの令 Shōruiawareminorei, Shorui Awaremi no Rei) told the populace, inter alia, to protect dogs, since in Edo there were many stray and diseased dogs walking around the city.
Therefore, he earned the pejorative title Inu-Kubō (犬公方:Inu=Dog, Kubō=formal title of Shogun).
In 1695, there were so many dogs that Edo began to smell horribly.
- snip -
For the latter part of Tsunayoshi's reign, he was advised by Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu.[1] It was a golden era of classic Japanese art, known as the Genroku era.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !




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. Nerima daikon 練馬大根 radish from Nerima .
- - - has been introduced by Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 5th shogun, to help feed the growing population of Edo.


. The Temple Bell at Asakusa, Senso-Ji .
- - - was cast at the orders of the shogun Tsunayoshi.


. Nezu Jinja 根津神社 Nezu Shrine .
The shrine pavilions we see today were constructed under the orders of Tsunayoshi Tokugawa (1646-1709), the fifth Shogun, in 1706.


. Yuuten, Yūten 祐天 Yuten Shami .
Yuten came to be patronized by Keisho-in, the mother of the fifth Tokugawa shogun Tsunayoshi, who is said to have called on him in his hermit's hut on the outskirts of Edo.


. 柳澤吉保 Yanagizawa Yoshiyasu . [1658 -1714]
special retainer of Tsunayoshi.


- - - - - 生類憐みの令 shōrui awaremi no rei
This law encompasses all living things, humans at first.
Tsunayoshi cared about the people, he was the first to promote Terakoya schools. When the first foreigners came to Japan in the Meiji period, they were surprized at the high level of literacy in this "backward" country.
He also abolished the law of "kirisute gomen", where samurai could kill normal people without any problem.
He also introduced the idea of being gratetful to the ancestors, installing family graves for the first time, gosenzo daidai 御先祖代々. mostly at temple graveyards.
Until then, individuals had individual graves.

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The Dog Shogun:
The Personality and Policies of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

Author: Beatrice Bodart-Bailey




Tsunayoshi (1646–1709), the fifth Tokugawa shogun, is one of the most notorious figures in Japanese history. Viewed by many as a tyrant, his policies were deemed eccentric, extreme, and unorthodox. His Laws of Compassion, which made the maltreatment of dogs an offense punishable by death, earned him the nickname Dog Shogun, by which he is still popularly known today. However, Tsunayoshi’s rule coincides with the famed Genroku era, a period of unprecedented cultural growth and prosperity that Japan would not experience again until the mid-twentieth century. It was under Tsunayoshi that for the first time in Japanese history considerable numbers of ordinary townspeople were in a financial position to acquire an education and enjoy many of the amusements previously reserved for the ruling elite.

Based on a masterful re-examination of primary sources, this exciting new work by a senior scholar of the Tokugawa period maintains that Tsunayoshi’s notoriety stems largely from the work of samurai historians and officials who saw their privileges challenged by a ruler sympathetic to commoners. Beatrice Bodart-Bailey’s insightful analysis of Tsunayoshi’s background sheds new light on his personality and the policies associated with his shogunate. Tsunayoshi was the fourth son of Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604–1651) and left largely in the care of his mother, the daughter of a greengrocer. Under her influence, Bodart-Bailey argues, the future ruler rebelled against the values of his class. As evidence she cites the fact that, as shogun, Tsunayoshi not only decreed the registration of dogs, which were kept in large numbers by samurai and posed a threat to the populace, but also the registration of pregnant women and young children to prevent infanticide. He decreed, moreover, that officials take on the onerous tasks of finding homes for abandoned children and caring for sick travelers.

In the eyes of his detractors, Tsunayoshi’s interest in Confucian and Buddhist studies and his other intellectual pursuits were merely distractions for a dilettante. Bodart-Bailey counters that view by pointing out that one of Japan’s most important political philosophers, Ogyû Sorai, learned his craft under the fifth shogun. Sorai not only praised Tsunayoshi’s government, but his writings constitute the theoretical framework for many of the ruler’s controversial policies. Another salutary aspect of Tsunayoshi’s leadership that Bodart-Bailey brings to light is his role in preventing the famines and riots that would have undoubtedly taken place following the worst earthquake and tsunami as well as the most violent eruption of Mount Fuji in history—all of which occurred during the final years of Tsunayoshi's shogunate.

The Dog Shogun is a thoroughly revisionist work of Japanese political history that touches on many social, intellectual, and economic developments as well. As such it promises to become a standard text on late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth-century Japan.
- source : www.uhpress.hawaii.edu/ -

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Keishooin 桂昌院 Keisho-In, Keishoin



- quote -
Keisho-in - Biography (1627-1705).
The birth mother of the fifth shogun Tsunayoshi Tokugawa. The second daughter of Nizaemon, a green grocer of Horikawa, Kyoto.
Keisho-in entered into service at the inner palace as the adopted daughter of Munemasa Honjo, the Keishi (an officer responsible for running the household) of Nijo Kampaku (Imperial Regent). She was chosen by Kasuganotsubone (the nurse of the shogun Iemitsu), became the concubine of the third shogun Iemitsu, and gave birth to Tsunayoshi. She was called Otamanokata (O-Tama no Kata), became a nun after the death of Iemitsu, and called herself Keisho-in. She rose to Juichii, the highest position for women, and became the power behind Tsunayoshi’s policies. She was also very religious and contributed to building Gokoku-Ji Temple and restoring many temples and shrines.
- snip -
When Otamanokata was a small girl, a priest was said to have predicted that she would rise to greatness.
Just as in the prediction, from being a daughter of a green grocer, Keisho-in rose to the highest possible position a woman could attain. It is a widely accepted theory that her name is the pronoun of Tamanokoshi (Japanese expression for marrying into money) because of her name and how she advanced in the world. In 1680, when Tsunayoshi assumed the role of shogun, she moved into Sannomaru in Edo Castle and intervened in politics.
It is generally believed that the famous law against the harming of animals was drawn up by Keisho-in pressuring Tsunayoshi following the suggestion made by her favorite high priest, Takamitsu. The Matsu no Roka Jiken (the incidence in the Matsu hallway) caused by Asano Takuminokami Naganori at Edo Castle happened during a visit by the Imperial envoy to announce Keisho-in’s new position as Juichii. In Zojo Temple in Shibakoen, where Keisho-in is buried, there are tombs of six shoguns, including the second shogun, Hidetada, and the sixth shogun, Ienobu, as well as the wives and concubines of each shogun.
The Inukimon Gate of the Tokugawa tomb is registered as the City’s tangible cultural property and was originally in front of Ienobu’s tomb. It is a Chinese-style bronze gate decorated with castings of ascending and descending dragons on either side of the gate. The 10 hollyhock crests on the door were added after World War II.
- source : lib.city.minato.tokyo.jp/yukari -


. Otowa Gokokuji 音羽護国寺 Otowa Gokoku-Ji .
This temple was founded in 1681 by 亮賢僧正 high priest Ryoken (1611 - 1687)
on behalf of Shogun Tsunayoshi for his mother, 桂昌院 Lady Keisho-In (徳川綱吉 生母).


. Yanagimori Jinja 柳森神社 Yanagimori Shrine .
The shrine was built in the late 17th century by a woman named Keisho-in 桂昌院, the daughter of a lowly greengrocer. As a teenager she was 'scouted' by representatives of Edo castle to join the O-oku -- the harem of women who serviced the Shogun.

. Keisho-In and her retainer Otowa 音羽 .
Otowachoo 音羽町 Otowa district in Edo


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- Reference - Japanese -
- Reference - English -

- - - #tokugawatsunayoshi #tsunayoshi - - -
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02/06/2015

Tanuma Okitsugu

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Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

(September 11, 1719 – August 25, 1788) - (1719 - 1788)

He is quite two-faced, either seen a corrupt official or as a saviour of a dismal economic situation . . .



- quote
a rōjū (senior counselor) of the Tokugawa shogunate who introduced monetary reform. He was also a daimyo, and ruled the Sagara han. He used the title Tonomo-no-kami.

His regime is often identified with rampant corruption and huge inflation of currency. In Tenmei 4 (1784), Okitsugu's son, the wakadoshiyori (junior counselor) Tanuma Okitomo, was assassinated inside Edo Castle. Okitomo was killed in front of his father as both were returning to their norimono after a meeting of the Counselors of State had broken up. Okitomo was killed by Sano Masakoto, a hatamoto. The involvement of senior figures in the bakufu was suspected, but only the assassin himself was punished. The result was that the Tanuma-initiated, liberalizing reforms within the bakufu and the relaxation of the strictures of sakoku were blocked.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

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- quote -
Tanuma Okitsugu
Tairô (1767/7-1786/8/27)
Tanuma Okitsugu served as Tairô from 1767 to 1786.
Though Tanuma is generally remembered as a terribly corrupt official, John Whitney Hall emphasizes his contributions to the expansion of trade through expansion of government control over it, going so far as to suggest that his programs might have led Japan towards industrializing earlier.
Hall places the blame for Japan's economic and military weakness in the 19th century on the conservative policies of Tanuma's successor, Matsudaira Sadanobu.

As Tairô
Tanuma's time as Tairô is generally associated with political corruption, especially in the form of bribes, and with rampant inflation, and widespread moral decay.
In the 1770s,
Tanuma provided Tsushima han with sizable monetary loans and grants on a number of occasions, eventually putting into place an annual grant of 12,000 ryô which helped the domain accommodate for the decline in the Korea trade caused by continued debasement of silver coinage and expansion of domestic production of ginseng and other goods which drove down the demand for imports; the domain would continue to be paid this grant every year until 1862.

In 1785, he established clearinghouses in Hakodate, Edo, Osaka, and Shimonoseki which oversaw the collection and transportation of marine products to Nagasaki for export; as with similar steps taken in other industries where the shogunate established or reorganized za trade associations, this did not push private merchants out of the business, but rather made them into something akin to government contractors, placing the operations of that business under more direct government oversight, in the hopes of stemming fluctuations, smuggling, and other problems.

The 1783 eruption of Mt. Asama, combined with the nearly ten-year-long Great Tenmei Famine, were widely seen as symbols that the country was in need of serious change and a return to virtuous leadership. Tanuma was ousted from power in 1786, and replaced as Tairô by Matsudaira Sadanobu the following year.

He is buried at the Zen temple Mannen-zan Shôrin-ji in the Komagome neighborhood of Tokyo.
- source : samurai archives -

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Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719-1788, forerunner of modern Japan
John Whitney Hall

This is a study of Tanuma Okitsugu, the most powerful political figure in Japan during the quarter century between 1760-1786. The book also provides a descriptive history of mid-eighteenth-century Japan.
- source : books.google.co.jp -


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Once
Tanuma looked at the pond in his garden and mumbled:
"It would be nice to have some fish swim here!"
And when he came back in the afternoon, the pond was full of the most beautiful koi goldfish - gifts (bribes) from people who depended on his support.

Once
Tanuma got a large gift parcel with the inscription :
"A Doll from Kyoto". When he opened it, it was a living Maiko girl with splendid robed and . . .


. shimonya 四文屋 "Four Mon Shop" .
They begun sprouting up everywhere during the period of Tanuma.
Small shops in Edo where everything cost just one coin, the "Four Mon Coin".
That was the beginning of our 100 Yen Shop, the One Dollar Shop, the One Euro Shop.
Other cheap items in Edo were multiplied with four.

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He supported the trade with foreign countries through the port of Nagasaki, especially
tawaramono 俵物 "goods packed in straw bags"
Nagasaki tawaramono yakusho 長崎俵物役所

- quote -
In the era of Edo, export goods from Nagasaki were such as dried sea cucumbers, dried abalones, dried fins of sharks that were all packed with straw rice bags, or tawara.
Foreign trade payment had been dealt with gold, silver and cotton at that time.
An outflow of these metals from Japan was so immense that a part of its trade payment was replaced with stuffs packed with straw rice bags called tawaramono.
The club was established to gather tawaramono for the convenience of those who were concerned in the first year of Enkyo (1744), but it often moved until being settled at this site in the 6th year of Anei (1777).
Later it was run exclusively by the shogunate but it didn't work well.
The club remained until the end of the shogunate.
Osaka, 2-15, 2-chome, Kitahama, Chuo-ku
- source : www.city.osaka.lg.jp -

- tawaramono sanpin 俵物三品: The three best were
iri namako 煎海鼠(いりなまこ/いりこ)- dried sea cucumbers
hoshi awabi 乾鮑(干鮑(ほしあわび))- dried abalones
fukahire 鱶鰭(ふかひれ)- dried sharks fins

- quote -
Sino-Japanese Interaction via Chinese Junks in the Edo Period
Matsuura Akira
In Japan as well, increased production of these three products — dried sea cucumber, dried abalone, and shark’s fin, collectively called tawaramono or hyōmotsu (俵物 goods in straw bags) — was actively promoted. At the beginning of the Guangxu years (1875–1908), He Ruzhang, appointed as plenipotentiary to Japan, wrote in his Shidong zaji (Miscellany of an Envoy to Japan),
“Many Chinese merchants take raw cotton and white sugar, and return with various marine products such as sea cucumbers and dried abalone.”
He Ruzhang’s note clearly underscores the importance of these products in China even after the Edo era . . .
- Read the full article PDF file, 14 pages :
- source : Matsuura Akira -


Through the tawawamono and payment in 銅 bronze instead of gold he managed to deal with the huge trade deficit of his times.
He founded the "Bronze Bank" dooza 銅座 in Osaka to deal with trade payments.

Since silver was rare in Japan and not enough to print silver coins for trade, he started the import of silver from China and then Holland. This silver also helped to grease the trade within Japan.
Gold was used as payment in Edo (Eastern Japan, whith more gold mines) whereas silver was used as payment in Osaka (Western Japan, with more silver mines). And the poor people used the bronze coins to make their payments.

- - - - - Monetary reform of 1772
nanryoonishugin なんりょうにしゅぎん 南鐐二朱銀 Nanryo Nishu Gin
silver coins introduced by Tanuma



nishububan 貮朱之歩判
nishuban 貮朱判
meiwa nanryoonishugin 明和南鐐二朱銀

- quote -
In the latter half of the 18th century, the demand for small-denomination currency increased due to expanded production of commercial crops in local villages. The Tokugawa Shogunate government issued silver coins (Meiwa Nanryo Nishu-gin <2-shu-gin>) with denominations based on gold coin units. Thus, the silver coins eventually became supplementary currencies of gold coins.
Toward the end of the Edo period, recoinages (Bunsei and Tenpo recoinages) were often carried out to finance the budget deficits of the Shogunate government, which led to chronic inflation. After the re-opening of international trade at the end of the Edo period, Japan experienced a huge outflow of gold coins overseas, and the Man’en recoinage, which was carried out to stop this outflow, caused further inflation, resulting in confusion of the nation’s monetary system toward the Meiji Restoration.
- source : BOJ Currency Museum -


. Coins (zeni, kozeni (銭、小銭) and Japanese money .


. kabunakama, kabu nakama 株仲間 merchant guild, merchant coalition
za 座 trade guilds, industrial guilds, artisan guilds .

Tanuma encouraged the kabunakama system in Edo.
Roju Tanuma 老中 田沼意次 - 株仲間の奨励

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. satoo 砂糖 Sato - History of Japanese sugar .
Tanuma
encouraged the trade of white European sugar via the merchants of Nagasaki.
He also introduced the plant satokibi , first grown at his request at a Nichiren temple, the Ikegami Honmon-Ji 池上本門寺 in the South of Edo. From there its growth spread to other suitable areas of Japan.


. koorai ninjin 高麗人参 Panax ginseng .
Tanuma
around 1760 encouraged their planting in Japan. He offered positions as "ministers" (bakushin 幕臣) to the scholars of kanpo 漢方 Chinese medicine plants.
Japanese ginseng 東洋参 (Panax japonicus)


With his great interest in these things, Tanuma was most probably influenced by the great

. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内  (1728 - 80) .

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A 狂歌 Kyoka parody poem about Tanuma

白河の 清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼の にごり恋しき
Shirakawa no kiyoki nagare ni sumikanete moto no tanuma no nigori koishiki

River Shirakawa is shorthand for Matsudaira Sadanobu.
tanuma, lit. fields and swamps.
.
古河の清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼ぞ今は恋しき

We can't get used to the clean flow of Shirakawa -
We rather long for the dirty puddles of fields and swamps.


- quote -
Matsudaira Sadanobu 松平定信 (1759 - 1829)
Japanese daimyo of the mid-Edo period, famous for his financial reforms which saved the Shirakawa Domain, and the similar reforms he undertook during his tenure as chief senior councilor (rōjū shuza; 老中首座) of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1787 to 1793.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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増補版 通史 田沼意次 - 2013



東日本大震災で破壊してしまった田沼家墓所
The grave of the Tanuma family has been destroyed by the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011.


- reference : TBS - Edo no Susume -

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. senryuu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .

- - - - - The most famous senryu in the times of Tanuma :



役人の子はにぎにぎをよく覚え
yakunin no ko wa niginigi o yoku oboe

the son of an official
learns quite easily
to grab anything


Taking bribes became the rule of the day in the time of Tanuma.




役人の骨っぽいのは猪牙に乗せ
yakunin no honeppoi no wa choki ni nose

a serious official
is best invited
to take a choki boat trip



. choki 猪牙 / chokibune 猪牙舟 water taxi, river taxi .
to the Yoshiware pleasure quarters.
Once an official has learned to enjoy (and spent his money) at the pleasure quarters, he can be kept with more bribes to indulge more and so on . . .


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- Reference - Japanese -

- Reference - English -

- #tanumaokitsugu -
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