Showing posts with label - - - TTT - - -. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - - - TTT - - -. Show all posts


Toyotomi Taiko Hideyoshi

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Toyotomi Hedeyoshi 豊臣秀吉 / Taiko Hideyoshi 太閤秀吉
(1537 - 1598)
Hashiba Hideyoshi 羽柴秀吉 

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A daimyo in the Sengoku period who unified the political factions of Japan. He succeeded his former liege lord, Oda Nobunaga, and brought an end to the Sengoku period. The period of his rule is often called the Momoyama period, named after Hideyoshi's castle. He is noted for a number of cultural legacies, including the restriction that only members of the samurai class could bear arms. Hideyoshi is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier."

February 2, 1536, or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598
kigo for mid-autumn

Taikoo Ki 太閤忌 (たいこうき) Taiko Memorial Day
Hideyoshi Ki 秀吉忌(ひでよしき)Hideyoshi Memorial Day

. Memorial Days of Famous People .

. Shogun Daruma Dolls 武将達磨 .


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Toyokuni Shrine 豊国神社 Toyokuni-jinja
a Shinto shrine located in Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It was built in 1599 to commemorate Toyotomi Hideyoshi. It is the location of the first tamaya (a Shinto altar for ancestor worship) ever constructed, which was later destroyed by the Tokugawa clan.
This shrine is the official tomb and shrine of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who died September 18, 1598 in Kyoto.
Nobles, priests, warriors, and townspeople gathered at the shrine to celebrate the anniversary of Hideyoshi's apotheosis with banquets, musical recitals, and boisterous festivity. The shrine was closed by Tokugawa Ieyasu in June 1615 "to discourage these unseemly displays of loyalty to a man he had eclipsed."
The Meiji Emperor
directed that the shrine be restored in Keiō 4, the 6th day of the 6th month (April 28, 1868). At that time, the shrine area was expanded slightly by encompassing a small parcel of land which had been part of the adjacent Hōkō-ji.
In 1897,
the tercentenary of Hideyoshi was celebrated at this site.
- source : widipedia -


. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art from Japan . 

source :。。。

秀吉と三法師 Hideyoshi and Sanboshi (Samboshi), one year old
about 32 cm high, made by 美濃島 Minoya 鈴太郎 Suzutaro

Oda Samboshi Hidenobu (1582-1602)
Son of Oda Nobutada, Grandson of Oda Nobunaga

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Oda Nobunaga had not intended to die as early as he did - he was assassinated in 1582 - and, thus, did not appoint a successor.
Hideyoshi, taking advantage of Oda Nobunaga's death, saw that Nobunaga's two sons were quarreling over succession, and, as Nobunaga's top general, placed Nobunaga's infant grandson, Samboshi in charge of the realm. Thus, Hideyoshi was able to rise to power more easily because of the lack of a leader in the Oda family. ...
- source : -


Hideyoshi clay doll from 尾北地方 the Bihoku region, Aichi. About 23 cm high.

Hideyoshi clay doll from 棚尾 Tanao, Aichi. About 34, 5 cm high.
Made by 鈴木初太郎 Suzuki Hatsutaro


Hideyoshi 太閤秀吉 - 小幡土人形 Obata clay doll, Shiga
Made by 細井文造 Hosoi Bunzo

. Hideyoshi doll by Hosoi Gengo 細居源悟 .


source :

武者人形 Musha Ningyo doll for the Boy's Festival in May.

. . . CLICK here for more Musha Ningyo Photos !



鳴かぬなら 鳴かせてみせよう ホトトギス
nakanu nara nakasete miseyoo hototogisu

If the bird does not sing,
I will make it sing!

The famous comparison of three famous warlords
Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu
and their approach to make a cuckoo (hototogisu) sing:

Here is the famous story to shed light on the temperament of the three most famous warlords in Japanese history:
When confronted with a nightingale in a cage, which would not sing, each had his own approach to this situation.

. Hototogisu and the three warlords  


. Legends and Tales from Japan 伝説 - Introduction .

................................................................................. Wakayama 和歌山県
伊都郡 Ito district 高野町 Koya

meidoo 鳴動 heavenly rumbling
Hideyoshi went to 高野山 Mount Koyasan with 観世太夫 Kanze Dayu, a Noh actor.
On this holy mountain, it was forbidden to blow the flute, but Hideyoshi made the actor blow it anyway.
And then there was a strong heavenly rumbling in the valley, storm, heavy rain and thunder as a reaction from the sky above.


- reference : nichibun yokai database -
33 to explore (01)


- Reference - 豊臣秀吉 -
- Reference - Toyotomi Hideyoshi -

. Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .


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Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takenouchi

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Takenouchi no Sukune 武内宿禰 / 竹内宿禰 / 建内宿禰
Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi
Takenouchi Skune, Takeuchi Sukune

(? - ?) he lived for 317 years
Maybe born during the reign of Emperor Keikō 景行天皇 Keiko Tenno (13 BC - 130 BC).
He passed away in the fifty-fifth year of 仁徳天皇 Emperor Nintoku (257 - 933).


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Takeshiuchi no Sukune
Also written with the Chinese characters 建内宿禰, and sometimes read Takenouchi no Sukune.
A legendary personality called one of the three meritorious subjects at the time of the Punitive Campaign against the Three Korean Kingdoms, and regarded as the ancestor of twenty-eight clans including Ki, Katsuragi, Heguri, Kose, and Soga.
- A grandson of Imperial Prince Hikofutōshimakoto no Mikoto, his father was Yanushioshiotakeokokoro no Mikoto, and his mother, Princess Kagehime. He served five legendary emperors, including Keikō (legendary reign 71-130), Seimu (131-190), Chūai (192-200), Ōjin (270-310), and Nintoku (313-399).
He was known to be particularly meritorious in serving Empress Jingū (legendary reign 209-269). He led a military campaign to the northeast in the twenty-fifth year of Emperor Keikō, then suppressed the Ezo peoples two years later. During the reign of Emperor Seimu, he became the first Great Minister (Ō-omi). He was significant in supporting Emperor Chūai and Empress Jingū during the Punitive Campaign against the Three Korean Kingdoms.
According to legend, at the end of his service spanning some two hundred and forty-four years, covering five imperial reigns, he passed away in the fifty-fifth year of Emperor Nintoku.
Takeshiuchi is also said to have performed the religious role of a saniwa, a spirit medium receiving divine oracles. The twenty-eight clans descended from him were said to have dispersed throughout the country and prospered.
He is enshrined as a kami in 宇倍神社 Ube Shrine in Iwami District, Tottori Prefecture, as well as at local Hachiman Shrines.
- reference source : Shimazu Norifumi, Kokugakuin 2006 -


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a legendary Japanese hero-statesman, and is a Shinto kami.
- - - - - Life
Takenouchi no Sukune was supposedly the son of Princess Kagehime, and is said to be grandson to Imperial Prince Hikofutodhimakoto no Mikoto. Also descended from Emperor Kōgen, Takenouchi no Sukune served under five legendary emperors, Emperor Keikō, Emperor Seimu, Emperor Chūai, Emperor Ōjin, and Emperor Nintoku, but was perhaps best known for his service as Grand Minister to the Regent Jingu, with whom he supposedly invaded Korea. While Jingu was regent to her son, Ojin, Takenouchi was accused of treason. He underwent the "ordeal of boiling water" as a way to prove his innocence.
In addition to his martial services to these emperors, he was reputedly also a 沙庭 saniwa, or spirit medium.
- - - - - Legacy
Twenty-eight Japanese clans are said to be descended from Takenouchi no Sukune, including Takeuchi and Soga. He is a legendary figure, and is said to have drunk daily from a sacred well, and this helped him to live to be 280 years old. Further, he is enshrined as a Kami at the Ube shrine, in the Iwami district of the Tottori Prefecture and at local Hachiman shrines. His portrait has also appeared on the Japanese yen, and dolls of him are popular Children’s Day gifts.
- Takenouchi no Sukune
is grandfather of Takenouchi no Matori (竹内真鳥) who created manuscript books of Takenouchi monjo (竹内文書) which depicted ancient Japan before the era of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki. The copies still exist in Kōsō Kōtai Jingū shrine in Ibaraki prefecture.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Takenouchi Monjo 竹内文書 Takenouchi Documents

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It is our privilege to share the wisdom of Takenouchi Documents on behalf of Wado Kosaka who is one of the prominent researchers of the Takenouchi Documents.
- reference source : -

『竹内文書 世界を一つにする地球最古の聖典

高坂和導 Kosaka Wado (著), 三和導代 (著)


武内宿禰と仁徳天皇 with emperor Nintoku Tenno (290 - 399)

Takenouchi no Sukune lived 超長寿者 a long long life, he is said to have become 317 years old.
(Nobody takes that serious in our day, though . .. )


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Empress Jingu and Takenouchi no Sukune
Another principal musha-ningyô is a character from Japan's remote history: Empress Jingu (170-269). The only female figure regularly associated with Boy's Day, she is paired with her faithful minister/ general Takenouchi no Sukune. The Nohongi (compiled in 720) states that her husband, Chuai Ten'no the 14th emperor of Japan, died just prior to invading Korea. Debate over the invasion had been strong and Jingu had been an ardent supporter.
. Musha ningyoo 武者人形 Samurai Dolls .


source :
神功皇后と武内宿禰 Empress Jingu and Takenouchi no Sukune

中野人形(長野県) Nakano Dolls from Nagano prefecture


source :
武内宿禰 Takeshiuchi no Sukune - Takeshi-Uchi
(15,1 cm high)

. Mingei 民芸 Folk Art from Japan . 
Shibahara tsuchi ningyoo 芝原土人形 Shibahara clay dolls - Chiba


提燈祭り Chochin Lantern Festival
埼玉県久喜市 Saitama, Kuki Town


武内宿禰(山車人形展)Exhibition of Festival Floats
千葉県市川市 Chiba, Ichikawa Town


"Takenouchi no Sukune Meets the Dragon King of the Sea"
1875-1879 ~ Bronze and Glass Sculpture.
This sculpture was created by skilled metalworking artists who looked back to the legendary founders of Japan to celebrate not only their own skills but also the age and prestige of their nation.
Takenouchi dreamed he was called by heaven to destroy a terrible sea monster that was terrorizing the waters for humans and sea creatures alike. Takenouchi undertook this task with great valor, and the Dragon King, Riujin, emerged from the deep with an attendant to thank him and present him with a jewel that gave control over the seas.
Ryūjin, The Dragon God of the Sea, who lives in the submerged Palace called the Ryūgū-jō castle.
He is usually represented in the shape of a very old man, with long beard, and with a dragon coiled on his head or back. His countenance is fierce; he carries in hand the tide-ruling gems.
(Foundation for the Arts Collection, Dallas Museum of Art.)


. Koma-jinja 高麗神社 Koma Shrine "Korea Shrine" . - Saitama
The enshrined deities are Koma no Koshiki Jakko, Sarutahiko no Mikoto and Takenouchi no Sukune.

. Kehi Jinguu 気比神宮 Shrine Kehi Jingu .
It enshrines the seven deities:
Isasawake-no-Mikoto, Emperor Chuai, Empress Jingu-Kogo, Emperor Ohjin, Takenouchi-no-Sukune-no-Mikoto, Yamato-Takeru-no-Mikoto, and Tamahime-no-Mikoto.


- reference source : -

- Reference - 武内宿禰 -
- Reference - takenouchi no sukune -


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Tokugawa Tsunayoshi


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Tokugawa Tsunayoshi 徳川綱吉
inu kuboo, Inu-Kubō 犬公方 Inu Kubo, the Dog Shogun

(1646 - 1709)

and his mother, Keisho-In.

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the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

He is known for instituting animal protection laws, particularly for dogs. This earned him the nickname of "the dog shogun."
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In 1691, Engelbert Kaempfer visited Edo as part of the annual Dutch embassy from Dejima in Nagasaki. He journeyed from Nagasaki to Osaka, to Kyoto, and there to Edo. Kaempfer gives us information on Japan during the early reign of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi. As the Dutch embassy entered Edo in 1692, they asked to have an audience with Shogun Tsunayoshi. While they were waiting for approval, a fire destroyed six hundred houses in Edo, and the audience was postponed. Tsunayoshi and several of the ladies of the court sat behind reed screens, while the Dutch embassy sat in front of them. Tsunayoshi took an interest in Western matters, and apparently asked them to talk and sing with one another for him to see how Westerners behaved. Tsunayoshi later put on a Noh drama for them.
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Owing to religious fundamentalism, Tsunayoshi sought protection for living beings in the later parts of his rule. In the 1690s and first decade of the 18th century, Tsunayoshi, who was born in the Year of the Dog, thought he should take several measures concerning dogs. A collection of edicts released daily, known as the Edicts on Compassion for Living Things (生類憐みの令 Shōruiawareminorei, Shorui Awaremi no Rei) told the populace, inter alia, to protect dogs, since in Edo there were many stray and diseased dogs walking around the city.
Therefore, he earned the pejorative title Inu-Kubō (犬公方:Inu=Dog, Kubō=formal title of Shogun).
In 1695, there were so many dogs that Edo began to smell horribly.
- snip -
For the latter part of Tsunayoshi's reign, he was advised by Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu.[1] It was a golden era of classic Japanese art, known as the Genroku era.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Nerima daikon 練馬大根 radish from Nerima .
- - - has been introduced by Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, 5th shogun, to help feed the growing population of Edo.

. The Temple Bell at Asakusa, Senso-Ji .
- - - was cast at the orders of the shogun Tsunayoshi.

. Nezu Jinja 根津神社 Nezu Shrine .
The shrine pavilions we see today were constructed under the orders of Tsunayoshi Tokugawa (1646-1709), the fifth Shogun, in 1706.

. Yuuten, Yūten 祐天 Yuten Shami .
Yuten came to be patronized by Keisho-in, the mother of the fifth Tokugawa shogun Tsunayoshi, who is said to have called on him in his hermit's hut on the outskirts of Edo.

. 柳澤吉保 Yanagizawa Yoshiyasu . [1658 -1714]
special retainer of Tsunayoshi.

- - - - - 生類憐みの令 shōrui awaremi no rei
This law encompasses all living things, humans at first.
Tsunayoshi cared about the people, he was the first to promote Terakoya schools. When the first foreigners came to Japan in the Meiji period, they were surprized at the high level of literacy in this "backward" country.
He also abolished the law of "kirisute gomen", where samurai could kill normal people without any problem.
He also introduced the idea of being gratetful to the ancestors, installing family graves for the first time, gosenzo daidai 御先祖代々. mostly at temple graveyards.
Until then, individuals had individual graves.


The Dog Shogun:
The Personality and Policies of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

Author: Beatrice Bodart-Bailey

Tsunayoshi (1646–1709), the fifth Tokugawa shogun, is one of the most notorious figures in Japanese history. Viewed by many as a tyrant, his policies were deemed eccentric, extreme, and unorthodox. His Laws of Compassion, which made the maltreatment of dogs an offense punishable by death, earned him the nickname Dog Shogun, by which he is still popularly known today. However, Tsunayoshi’s rule coincides with the famed Genroku era, a period of unprecedented cultural growth and prosperity that Japan would not experience again until the mid-twentieth century. It was under Tsunayoshi that for the first time in Japanese history considerable numbers of ordinary townspeople were in a financial position to acquire an education and enjoy many of the amusements previously reserved for the ruling elite.

Based on a masterful re-examination of primary sources, this exciting new work by a senior scholar of the Tokugawa period maintains that Tsunayoshi’s notoriety stems largely from the work of samurai historians and officials who saw their privileges challenged by a ruler sympathetic to commoners. Beatrice Bodart-Bailey’s insightful analysis of Tsunayoshi’s background sheds new light on his personality and the policies associated with his shogunate. Tsunayoshi was the fourth son of Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604–1651) and left largely in the care of his mother, the daughter of a greengrocer. Under her influence, Bodart-Bailey argues, the future ruler rebelled against the values of his class. As evidence she cites the fact that, as shogun, Tsunayoshi not only decreed the registration of dogs, which were kept in large numbers by samurai and posed a threat to the populace, but also the registration of pregnant women and young children to prevent infanticide. He decreed, moreover, that officials take on the onerous tasks of finding homes for abandoned children and caring for sick travelers.

In the eyes of his detractors, Tsunayoshi’s interest in Confucian and Buddhist studies and his other intellectual pursuits were merely distractions for a dilettante. Bodart-Bailey counters that view by pointing out that one of Japan’s most important political philosophers, Ogyû Sorai, learned his craft under the fifth shogun. Sorai not only praised Tsunayoshi’s government, but his writings constitute the theoretical framework for many of the ruler’s controversial policies. Another salutary aspect of Tsunayoshi’s leadership that Bodart-Bailey brings to light is his role in preventing the famines and riots that would have undoubtedly taken place following the worst earthquake and tsunami as well as the most violent eruption of Mount Fuji in history—all of which occurred during the final years of Tsunayoshi's shogunate.

The Dog Shogun is a thoroughly revisionist work of Japanese political history that touches on many social, intellectual, and economic developments as well. As such it promises to become a standard text on late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth-century Japan.
- source : -


Keishooin 桂昌院 Keisho-In, Keishoin

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Keisho-in - Biography (1627-1705).
The birth mother of the fifth shogun Tsunayoshi Tokugawa. The second daughter of Nizaemon, a green grocer of Horikawa, Kyoto.
Keisho-in entered into service at the inner palace as the adopted daughter of Munemasa Honjo, the Keishi (an officer responsible for running the household) of Nijo Kampaku (Imperial Regent). She was chosen by Kasuganotsubone (the nurse of the shogun Iemitsu), became the concubine of the third shogun Iemitsu, and gave birth to Tsunayoshi. She was called Otamanokata (O-Tama no Kata), became a nun after the death of Iemitsu, and called herself Keisho-in. She rose to Juichii, the highest position for women, and became the power behind Tsunayoshi’s policies. She was also very religious and contributed to building Gokoku-Ji Temple and restoring many temples and shrines.
- snip -
When Otamanokata was a small girl, a priest was said to have predicted that she would rise to greatness.
Just as in the prediction, from being a daughter of a green grocer, Keisho-in rose to the highest possible position a woman could attain. It is a widely accepted theory that her name is the pronoun of Tamanokoshi (Japanese expression for marrying into money) because of her name and how she advanced in the world. In 1680, when Tsunayoshi assumed the role of shogun, she moved into Sannomaru in Edo Castle and intervened in politics.
It is generally believed that the famous law against the harming of animals was drawn up by Keisho-in pressuring Tsunayoshi following the suggestion made by her favorite high priest, Takamitsu. The Matsu no Roka Jiken (the incidence in the Matsu hallway) caused by Asano Takuminokami Naganori at Edo Castle happened during a visit by the Imperial envoy to announce Keisho-in’s new position as Juichii. In Zojo Temple in Shibakoen, where Keisho-in is buried, there are tombs of six shoguns, including the second shogun, Hidetada, and the sixth shogun, Ienobu, as well as the wives and concubines of each shogun.
The Inukimon Gate of the Tokugawa tomb is registered as the City’s tangible cultural property and was originally in front of Ienobu’s tomb. It is a Chinese-style bronze gate decorated with castings of ascending and descending dragons on either side of the gate. The 10 hollyhock crests on the door were added after World War II.
- source : -

. 神齢山 Shinreizan 悉地院 Shitchi-In 護国寺 Gokoku-Ji .
This temple was founded in 1681 by 亮賢僧正 high priest Ryoken (1611 - 1687)
on behalf of Shogun Tsunayoshi for his mother, 桂昌院 Lady Keisho-In (徳川綱吉 生母).

. Yanagimori Jinja 柳森神社 Yanagimori Shrine .
The shrine was built in the late 17th century by a woman named Keisho-in 桂昌院, the daughter of a lowly greengrocer. As a teenager she was 'scouted' by representatives of Edo castle to join the O-oku -- the harem of women who serviced the Shogun.


- Reference - Japanese -
- Reference - English -

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Tanuma Okitsugu


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Tanuma Okitsugu 田沼意次

(September 11, 1719 – August 25, 1788) - (1719 - 1788)

He is quite two-faced, either seen a corrupt official or as a saviour of a dismal economic situation . . .

- quote
a rōjū (senior counselor) of the Tokugawa shogunate who introduced monetary reform. He was also a daimyo, and ruled the Sagara han. He used the title Tonomo-no-kami.

His regime is often identified with rampant corruption and huge inflation of currency. In Tenmei 4 (1784), Okitsugu's son, the wakadoshiyori (junior counselor) Tanuma Okitomo, was assassinated inside Edo Castle. Okitomo was killed in front of his father as both were returning to their norimono after a meeting of the Counselors of State had broken up. Okitomo was killed by Sano Masakoto, a hatamoto. The involvement of senior figures in the bakufu was suspected, but only the assassin himself was punished. The result was that the Tanuma-initiated, liberalizing reforms within the bakufu and the relaxation of the strictures of sakoku were blocked.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


- quote -
Tanuma Okitsugu
Tairô (1767/7-1786/8/27)
Tanuma Okitsugu served as Tairô from 1767 to 1786.
Though Tanuma is generally remembered as a terribly corrupt official, John Whitney Hall emphasizes his contributions to the expansion of trade through expansion of government control over it, going so far as to suggest that his programs might have led Japan towards industrializing earlier.
Hall places the blame for Japan's economic and military weakness in the 19th century on the conservative policies of Tanuma's successor, Matsudaira Sadanobu.

As Tairô
Tanuma's time as Tairô is generally associated with political corruption, especially in the form of bribes, and with rampant inflation, and widespread moral decay.
In the 1770s,
Tanuma provided Tsushima han with sizable monetary loans and grants on a number of occasions, eventually putting into place an annual grant of 12,000 ryô which helped the domain accommodate for the decline in the Korea trade caused by continued debasement of silver coinage and expansion of domestic production of ginseng and other goods which drove down the demand for imports; the domain would continue to be paid this grant every year until 1862.

In 1785, he established clearinghouses in Hakodate, Edo, Osaka, and Shimonoseki which oversaw the collection and transportation of marine products to Nagasaki for export; as with similar steps taken in other industries where the shogunate established or reorganized za trade associations, this did not push private merchants out of the business, but rather made them into something akin to government contractors, placing the operations of that business under more direct government oversight, in the hopes of stemming fluctuations, smuggling, and other problems.

The 1783 eruption of Mt. Asama, combined with the nearly ten-year-long Great Tenmei Famine, were widely seen as symbols that the country was in need of serious change and a return to virtuous leadership. Tanuma was ousted from power in 1786, and replaced as Tairô by Matsudaira Sadanobu the following year.

He is buried at the Zen temple Mannen-zan Shôrin-ji in the Komagome neighborhood of Tokyo.
- source : samurai archives -


Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719-1788, forerunner of modern Japan
John Whitney Hall

This is a study of Tanuma Okitsugu, the most powerful political figure in Japan during the quarter century between 1760-1786. The book also provides a descriptive history of mid-eighteenth-century Japan.
- source : -


Tanuma looked at the pond in his garden and mumbled:
"It would be nice to have some fish swim here!"
And when he came back in the afternoon, the pond was full of the most beautiful koi goldfish - gifts (bribes) from people who depended on his support.

Tanuma got a large gift parcel with the inscription :
"A Doll from Kyoto". When he opened it, it was a living Maiko girl with splendid robed and . . .

. shimonya 四文屋 "Four Mon Shop" .
They begun sprouting up everywhere during the period of Tanuma.
Small shops in Edo where everything cost just one coin, the "Four Mon Coin".
That was the beginning of our 100 Yen Shop, the One Dollar Shop, the One Euro Shop.
Other cheap items in Edo were multiplied with four.


He supported the trade with foreign countries through the port of Nagasaki, especially
tawaramono 俵物 "goods packed in straw bags"
Nagasaki tawaramono yakusho 長崎俵物役所

- quote -
In the era of Edo, export goods from Nagasaki were such as dried sea cucumbers, dried abalones, dried fins of sharks that were all packed with straw rice bags, or tawara.
Foreign trade payment had been dealt with gold, silver and cotton at that time.
An outflow of these metals from Japan was so immense that a part of its trade payment was replaced with stuffs packed with straw rice bags called tawaramono.
The club was established to gather tawaramono for the convenience of those who were concerned in the first year of Enkyo (1744), but it often moved until being settled at this site in the 6th year of Anei (1777).
Later it was run exclusively by the shogunate but it didn't work well.
The club remained until the end of the shogunate.
Osaka, 2-15, 2-chome, Kitahama, Chuo-ku
- source : -

- tawaramono sanpin 俵物三品: The three best were
iri namako 煎海鼠(いりなまこ/いりこ)- dried sea cucumbers
hoshi awabi 乾鮑(干鮑(ほしあわび))- dried abalones
fukahire 鱶鰭(ふかひれ)- dried sharks fins

- quote -
Sino-Japanese Interaction via Chinese Junks in the Edo Period
Matsuura Akira
In Japan as well, increased production of these three products — dried sea cucumber, dried abalone, and shark’s fin, collectively called tawaramono or hyōmotsu (俵物 goods in straw bags) — was actively promoted. At the beginning of the Guangxu years (1875–1908), He Ruzhang, appointed as plenipotentiary to Japan, wrote in his Shidong zaji (Miscellany of an Envoy to Japan),
“Many Chinese merchants take raw cotton and white sugar, and return with various marine products such as sea cucumbers and dried abalone.”
He Ruzhang’s note clearly underscores the importance of these products in China even after the Edo era . . .
- Read the full article PDF file, 14 pages :
- source : Matsuura Akira -

Through the tawawamono and payment in 銅 bronze instead of gold he managed to deal with the huge trade deficit of his times.
He founded the "Bronze Bank" dooza 銅座 in Osaka to deal with trade payments.

Since silver was rare in Japan and not enough to print silver coins for trade, he started the import of silver from China and then Holland. This silver also helped to grease the trade within Japan.
Gold was used as payment in Edo (Eastern Japan, whith more gold mines) whereas silver was used as payment in Osaka (Western Japan, with more silver mines). And the poor people used the bronze coins to make their payments.

- - - - - Monetary reform of 1772
nanryoonishugin なんりょうにしゅぎん 南鐐二朱銀 Nanryo Nishu Gin
silver coins introduced by Tanuma

nishububan 貮朱之歩判
nishuban 貮朱判
meiwa nanryoonishugin 明和南鐐二朱銀

- quote -
In the latter half of the 18th century, the demand for small-denomination currency increased due to expanded production of commercial crops in local villages. The Tokugawa Shogunate government issued silver coins (Meiwa Nanryo Nishu-gin <2-shu-gin>) with denominations based on gold coin units. Thus, the silver coins eventually became supplementary currencies of gold coins.
Toward the end of the Edo period, recoinages (Bunsei and Tenpo recoinages) were often carried out to finance the budget deficits of the Shogunate government, which led to chronic inflation. After the re-opening of international trade at the end of the Edo period, Japan experienced a huge outflow of gold coins overseas, and the Man’en recoinage, which was carried out to stop this outflow, caused further inflation, resulting in confusion of the nation’s monetary system toward the Meiji Restoration.
- source : BOJ Currency Museum -

. Coins (zeni, kozeni (銭、小銭) and Japanese money .

. kabunakama, kabu nakama 株仲間 merchant guild, merchant coalition
za 座 trade guilds, industrial guilds, artisan guilds .

Tanuma encouraged the kabunakama system in Edo.
Roju Tanuma 老中 田沼意次 - 株仲間の奨励


. satoo 砂糖 Sato - History of Japanese sugar .
encouraged the trade of white European sugar via the merchants of Nagasaki.
He also introduced the plant satokibi , first grown at his request at a Nichiren temple, the Ikegami Honmon-Ji 池上本門寺 in the South of Edo. From there its growth spread to other suitable areas of Japan.

. koorai ninjin 高麗人参 Panax ginseng .
around 1760 encouraged their planting in Japan. He offered positions as "ministers" (bakushin 幕臣) to the scholars of kanpo 漢方 Chinese medicine plants.
Japanese ginseng 東洋参 (Panax japonicus)

With his great interest in these things, Tanuma was most probably influenced by the great

. Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内  (1728 - 80) .


A 狂歌 Kyoka parody poem about Tanuma

白河の 清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼の にごり恋しき
Shirakawa no kiyoki nagare ni sumikanete moto no tanuma no nigori koishiki

River Shirakawa is shorthand for Matsudaira Sadanobu.
tanuma, lit. fields and swamps.
古河の清き流れに住みかねて もとの田沼ぞ今は恋しき

We can't get used to the clean flow of Shirakawa -
We rather long for the dirty puddles of fields and swamps.

- quote -
Matsudaira Sadanobu 松平定信 (1759 - 1829)
Japanese daimyo of the mid-Edo period, famous for his financial reforms which saved the Shirakawa Domain, and the similar reforms he undertook during his tenure as chief senior councilor (rōjū shuza; 老中首座) of the Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1787 to 1793.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


増補版 通史 田沼意次 - 2013

The grave of the Tanuma family has been destroyed by the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011.

- reference : TBS - Edo no Susume -


. senryuu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .

- - - - - The most famous senryu in the times of Tanuma :

yakunin no ko wa niginigi o yoku oboe

the son of an official
learns quite easily
to grab anything

Taking bribes became the rule of the day in the time of Tanuma.

yakunin no honeppoi no wa choki ni nose

a serious official
is best invited
to take a choki boat trip

. choki 猪牙 / chokibune 猪牙舟 water taxi, river taxi .
to the Yoshiware pleasure quarters.
Once an official has learned to enjoy (and spent his money) at the pleasure quarters, he can be kept with more bribes to indulge more and so on . . .


- Reference - Japanese -

- Reference - English -

- #tanumaokitsugu -

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Toyama Kagemoto


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Tooyama 遠山景元 Toyama Saemon no Jo Kagemoto
(1793 – 1855)
生誕 寛政5年8月23日(1793年9月27日)
死没 安政2年2月29日(1855年4月15日)
(September 27, 1793 – April 15, 1855)

Tōyama Kagemoto (遠山景元) Kinshiro 金四郎
a hatamoto and an official of the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Edo Period of Japanese history. His ancestry was of the Minamoto clan of Mino Province. His father, Kagemichi 遠山景晋, was the magistrate of Nagasaki.
Kagemoto held the posts of Finance Magistrate, North Magistrate, and subsequently the South Magistrate of Edo. (The magistrates of Edo acted as chiefs of the police and fire departments and as judges in criminal and civil matters.)

(Edo machibugyoo, machi bugyoo 町奉行 magistrate of Edo)

As North Magistrate, his opposition to South Magistrate Torii Yōzō and Rōjū Mizuno Tadakuni won him popularity. In 1843, he was ousted from his position as North Magistrate through the machinations of Torii, and although nominally appointed Ōmetsuke, was out of power. Two years later, when Mizuno ousted Torii, Tōyama received an appointment as South Magistrate, a post once held by Ōoka Tadasuke.

Tōyama's rose to the Lower Junior Fifth rank with the name Tōyama Saemon no Jō Saemonnojo.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

His father had adopted another boy of the family for his heir, so Kinshiro in his youth had no prospects for a good future and spent a lot of time in the pleasure quarters of Edo.
During that time he might have acquired some tatoo like the men of the city used to favor.
Only when the family heir died at an early age Kagemoto became the head of the family and started his career as a governor of Edo.

When his superior Mizuno tried to relocate the three Kabuki theaters to a far-away location, Toyama intervened on behalf of the people, since Kabuki was one of their few leisure activities at that time in Edo.

His real fame came later, when the Kabuki world was paying him back for his benevolence with a play in the Meiji area and the kodan story tellers took up the subject.
And with the advent of TV series and movies, he became a real star in Japan.

His grave at temple Honmyo-Ji in Tokyo
遠山金四郎景元の墓 - (東京都豊島区巣鴨五丁目・本妙寺)

- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !

. 江戸の名奉行 Famous Bugyo Magistrates from Edo .


Three leisure acitivites in Edo
Sumo, Kabuki and the Pleasure quarters - having a drink together

遠山金四郎 - 誰も知らなかった桜吹雪


- source : おおえど.com

. Edo Sanza 江戸三座
the three famous Kabuki theaters of Edo .

with a special permission from the city government (町奉行 machi bugyoo).

堺町・葺屋町 Sakai Machi
木挽町 Kobiki choo
猿若町 Saruwaka choo. later renamed Nakamura-za


CLICK for more photos of the actors !

Tōyama no Kin-san (遠山の金さん)
is a popular character based on the historical Tōyama Kagemoto, a samurai and official of the Tokugawa Shogunate during the Edo Period of Japanese history. In kabuki and kōdan, he was celebrated under his childhood name, Kinshirō, shortened to Kin-san. He was said to have left home as a young man, and lived among the commoners, even having a tattoo of flowering sakura trees on his shoulder. This story developed into a legend of helping the common people.

The novelist Tatsurō Jinde (陣出達郎) wrote a series of books about Kin-san. Noted actor Chiezō Kataoka starred in a series of eight Toei jidaigeki films about him. Several Japanese television networks have aired series based on the character. These variously portrayed him pretending to be a petty hood or a yojimbo samurai while solving crimes as the chief of police.

People famous for having portrayed Kin-san on television include kabuki stars Nakamura Umenosuke IV and Ichikawa Danshirō, singers Yukio Hashi and Teruhiko Saigō, and actors Ryōtarō Sugi, Hideki Takahashi, Hiroki Matsukata, and Kōtarō Satomi.
Saigō and Satomi portrayed Kin-san in the series Edo o Kiru.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Edo o Kiru 江戸を斬る Slashing Edo

a popular jidaigeki on Japan's Tokyo Broadcasting System.
During the decades from its September 24, 1973 premiere until the July 25, 1994 finale, 214 episodes aired. It lasted through eight series, with several casts and settings. It ran on Monday evenings in the 8:00 – 8:54 prime time slot, sponsored by National, and remains popular in reruns.

The first series featured popular actor Takewaki Muga, a co-star in the network's program Ōoka Echizen, which alternated with Edo o Kiru in the same time slot. He played Hoshina Masayuki, half-brother of shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu, masquerading as Azusa Ukon in a good-over-evil drama set in Edo. Also on the cast was Matsuzaka Keiko, who continued in the next several versions of the show.

Versions two through six starred the popular actor/singer Saigo Teruhiko in the role of Toyama Kagemoto, or Tōyama no Kin-san, a samurai who lived among the commoners, to the point of having a huge sakura tattoo drawn on his shoulder, but later became chief administrator of Edo. In this version of the Kin-san story (which has been the subject of several other series), Kinshiro lived in the house of the woman who had been his nursemaid (played by Masumi Harukawa, later O-Sai of Abarenbo Shogun), the proprietor of a fish-dealer. O-Yuki (Keiko Matsuzaka), pretending to be her daughter, is actually a daughter of Tokugawa Nariaki, daimyo of the Mito domain, and eventually marries Kin-san.
Wearing a purple cloth over her head and face, and wielding a sword in the Yagyū Shinkage-ryū manner, she works outside the law to bring justice to the wicked. At her right hand is an employee at the shop, Jirokichi (kabuki actor Matsuyama Eitaro, 1942–1991). The former Robin Hood-style thief Nezumi Kozō, he became an undercover agent for the Kin-san/O-Yuki team.
Morishige Hisaya (1913– ) played Nariaki in special guest appearances.

A major cast change brought veteran jidaigeki actor Kōtarō Satomi to the lead role, again as Kin-san, for the seventh and eighth series.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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Tokugawa Iemitsu

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Tokugawa Iemitsu 徳川家光 Third Shogun
sometimes spelled Iyemitsu, Iyémitsŭ,

(August 12, 1604 – June 8, 1651)
and in office 1623 – 1651

- quote
the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Hidetada, and the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Iemitsu ruled from 1623 to 1651.
... his childhood name was Takechiyo (竹千代).
his younger brother was Tokugawa Tadanaga - However, Ieyasu made it clear that Iemitsu would be next in line as shogun after Hidetada.
In 1623, when Iemitsu was nineteen, Hidetada abdicated the post of shogun in his favor. Hidetada continued to rule as Ōgosho (retired Shogun), but Iemitsu nevertheless assumed a role as formal head of the bakufu government.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Utsunomiya Tsuritenjo Jiken 宇都宮 釣天井事件 The Ceiling at Utsunomiya

source :
Now even the subject of a senbei rice cracker.

- quote

Near Utsunomiya, August 30, 1886
I recall a little story of Utsunomiya, connected with my associations of Nikko, which I shall try to tell you; though, at the very start, I find a difficulty in my having heard it told in several different and contradictory ways—and I can only travel one at a time. As I shall tell it, it represents a legend believed at least in the theater, which, as we know, everywhere makes a kind of history.

The story is about the shogun Iyémitsŭ, whose temple, you know, is at Nikko, and who was near missing the honor of being divinized there later, owing to a plot arranged by his enemies, the scene of which was this little town of Utsunomiya. At that time he was but a boy, the heir-apparent, and was on his way to Nikko, as was his official duty, to worship at the tomb of his grandfather Iyéyasŭ, lately deceased. In this story Iyémitsŭ is not in the legitimate line of descent, but is made the heir by the decision of the great Iyéyasŭ.

His father, Hidetada, was shogun, as you know, having succeeded Iyéyasŭ, during the latter's lifetime,—the old man remaining in reality the master, though absolved from external responsibilities. Now, Hidetada's wife was of the family of Nobunaga, on her mother's side—and bore him a son, who was named during his childhood Kuni Matsu. Another son, whose boy name was Take Chiyo, was the son of Kasuga No Tsubone, a remarkable woman. Each son had tutors, people of importance, and around each boy gathered a number of ambitious interests, all the fiercer that they were dissembled and depended for success upon the choice of either heir as shogun, to succeed father and grandfather. The claim of the other son was favored by the father and more generally accepted; but the son of Kasuga was superior in looks, manners, and intelligence, and his mother hoped to influence in his favor old Iyéyasŭ, the grandfather.

Iyéyasŭ was then living in retirement at Sunpu, that is now called Shidzuoka, which is on the road called the Tokaido.

Kasuga took advantage of a pilgrimage to the shrines of Ise to stop on her road, and naturally offer homage to the head of the family, the grandfather of her son. Besides the power of her own personality, she was able to place before Iyéyasŭ very strong arguments for choosing as the heir of the line a youth as promising as her Take Chiyo.

Iyéyasŭ advised her to continue her pilgrimage, and not to go out of her woman's business, which could not be that of interfering with questions of state; and she obeyed. But Iyéyasŭ revolved the entire question in his mind, and decided that there was danger in a delay that allowed both parties to grow stronger in antagonism. So that he came at once to Yedo, which is now Tokio, and visited Hidetada, asking to see both the boys together. They came in along with their father and his wife, and took their accustomed places. Now these were on the higher floor, raised by a few inches from the floor on which kneels the visitor of lower degree, in the presence of his superior: a line of black lacquer edges the division. Thereupon Iyéyasŭ taking the boy Take Chiyo by the hand, made him sit by him, and alongside of his father, and ordered the other son, Kuni Matsu, to sit below the line, and said:
"The State will come to harm if the boys are allowed to grow up in the idea of equal rank.
Therefore, Take Chiyo shall be shogun, and Kuni Matsu a daimio
This decision gave to the line of the Tokugawa a brilliant and powerful continuity, for Take Chiyo, under his manhood name of Iyémitsŭ, was as an Augustus to the Cæsar Iyéyasŭ. And, indeed, Iyéyasŭ had certainly made sufficient inquiries to warrant his decision. If he consulted the abbot Tenkai, of Nikko, who was a preceptor of the boy, he must have heard favorably of him. For, according to the judgment of Tenkai, as I find it quoted elsewhere, "Iyémitsŭ was very shrewd and of great foresight," and in his presence the great abbot felt, he said, "as if thorns were pricking his back."

Not but that he was also fond of luxury and splendor; and one glimpse of him as a youth shows a quarrel with a tutor who found him dressing himself, or being dressed, for "No" performances, or "private theatricals," and who proceeded thereupon to throw away the double mirrors,—in which the youth followed his hair-dresser's arrangements,—with the usual, classical rebuke, condemning such arrangements as unworthy of a ruler of Japan.

There are many stories of Iyémitsŭ more or less to his advantage—and a little anecdote shows a young man of quick temper, as well as one who insisted upon proper attendance.

Iyémitsŭ had been hawking in a strong wind, and with no success. Tired and hungry, he went with some lord-in-waiting to a neighboring temple, where lunch was prepared for them by his cook,—a man of rank. Iyémitsŭ, while taking his soup in a hurry, crushed a little stone between his teeth; whereupon he immediately insisted upon the cook's committing suicide. The cook being a gentleman, a man of affairs, not a mere artist like poor Vatel, hesitated, and then said:
"No soup made by me ever had stones or pebbles in it; otherwise I should gladly kill myself: you gentlemen have begun dinner at once without washing hands or changing dress, and some pebble has dropped into the soup from your hair or clothes. If after having washed your hands and changed your dress, you find any stones in the soup, I shall kill myself."
Whereupon Iyémitsŭ did as was suggested by the cook, repented of his own severity, and increased the cook's pay. But the tutor and guardians of Iyémitsŭ watched over him carefully, and the story I had begun to tell shows that they had no sinecure.

The tutors and guardians of the brother, whom Iyéyasŭ had decided to put aside in favor of Iyémitsŭ, were naturally deeply aggrieved and sought for chances to regain their ward's future power and their own.

As my story began, Iyémitsŭ, representing the hereditary shogunate, was called upon to travel to Nikko and worship officially at his grandfather's tomb. On his way it was natural that he should rest as we did, at Utsunomiya, and in the castle of his vassal, Honda, who was one of the tutors of his brother. This was the son  of the great Honda Masanobu, of whom I spoke above as a champion of Iyéyasŭ.

Here was an opportunity; and a scheme of getting rid of the young shogun was devised by his enemies that seemed to them sufficiently obscure to shield them in case of success or failure, at least for a time. This was, to have a movable ceiling made to the bath-room weighted in such a way as to fall upon any one in the bath and crush him. Whether it was to be lifted again, and leave him drowned in his bath, or to remain as an accident from faulty construction, I do not know.

To build this machine, ten carpenters were set to work within the castle and kept jealously secluded,—even when the work was done, for the young shogun delayed his coming. The confinement fretted the men, among whom was a young lover, anxious to get back to his sweetheart, and not to be satisfied with the good food and drink provided to appease him. He told of his longings to the gatekeeper, whose duty it was to keep him imprisoned, bribed him with his own handsome pay and promise of a punctual return, and at last managed to get out and be happy for a few moments. The girl of his love was inquisitive, but reassured by explanation that the work was done, and that he should soon be out again; yet not before the shogun should have come and gone on his way to Nikko. And so he returned to the gatekeeper at the time appointed. Meanwhile, during that very night, the officers of the castle had gone their rounds and found one man absent. In the morning the roll-call was full. This was reported to the lord of the castle, who decided that if he could not know who it was that had been absent it was wise to silence them all. Therefore, each was called to be paid and dismissed, and, as he stepped out, was beheaded. The gatekeeper, getting wind of what was happening and  fearing punishment, ran away, and being asked by the girl about her lover, told her what he knew and that he believed all the carpenters to have been killed.

Since her lover was dead, she determined to die also, having been the cause of his death and of the death of his companions. She wrote out all this, together with what her lover had told her of his belief and suspicions, and left the letter for her father and mother, who received it along with the tidings of her suicide. The father, in an agony of distress and fear, for there was danger to the whole family from every side, made up his mind to stop the shogun at all hazards, and in the depth of the night made his way to Ishibashi, where one of the princes had preceded Iyémitsŭ, who was to pass the night still further back on the road.

Here there was difficulty about getting a private interview with so great a man as this prince, whose name you will remember as being the title of the former owner of our friend's house in Nikko: Ii, Kammon no Kami.

The letter was shown to Ii, who despatched two messengers, gentlemen of his own, one back to Yedo, to see to the safety of the castle there; the other one to Iyémitsŭ, but by a circuitous route, so that he might appear to have come the other way. The letter was to the effect that the young shogun's father was very ill and desired his son's immediate return. By the time that Iyémitsŭ could get into his litter, Ii had arrived and shown him the girl's letter. Then the occupants of the litters were changed, Matsudaira taking Iyémitsŭ's norimono and Iyémitsŭ Matsudaira's. This, of course, was to give another chance of escape in case of sudden attack by a larger force, for they were now in enemy's country and did not know what traps might be laid for them. The bearers of the palanquin pressed through the night, so that, leaving at midnight, they arrived at Yedo the following  evening; but the strain had been so great that they could go no further.

There was still the fear of attack, and among the retinue one very strong man, Matsudaira Ishikawa, carried the litter of the prince himself. But the gates were closed, and the guards refused to recognize the unknown litter as that of the shogun; nor would they, fearing treachery, open when told that Iyémitsŭ had returned. Delays ensued, but at last admission was obtained for Iyémitsŭ through a wicket gate—and he was safe. Later, after cautious delays, the guilty were punished, and I hope the family of the carpenter's love escaped. When I first read the story, years ago, the version was different, and there was some arrangement of it, more romantic—with some circumstances through which the young carpenter and his sweetheart escaped, and alone the father, innocent of harm, committed suicide.

- - - snip

That lady in the story just given you, where she is the mother of Iyémitsŭ and the concubine of his father, the shogun, was a very different person.

Little Iyémitsŭ was the legitimate son; moreover, the one who by date of birth was the probable heir, notwithstanding the preference shown by his father and his mother, Sogenin, for his younger brother. So that the succession was decided abruptly by the stern head of the family, Iyéyasŭ.

Great attention was paid by the grandfather, the great Iyéyasŭ, to the education of this grandson. As a Japanese friend remarked, he believed that the important place in the generation was that of the third man. So that three distinguished noblemen were appointed his governors: Sakai, to teach benevolence; Doi, to teach wisdom; Awoyama, to teach valor.
Besides these great professors for the future, the little boy needed an immediate training by a governess good in every way. Kasuga, a married woman, the daughter of a well-known warrior of imperial descent who had lost his life in some conspiracy of the previous generation, was chosen by [Pg 213] the government for the position. This was, perhaps, as great an honor as could be offered to any lady. Besides, there was an opportunity to clear the memory of her father. And she begged her husband to divorce her that she might be free to give all her life to this task. So devoted was she that the boy being at one time at the point of death, she offered herself to the gods for his recovery, vowing never to take any remedy. In her last illness she refused all medicine, and even when Iyémitsŭ—now ruler—begged her to take a commended draught from his hand, she merely, out of politeness, allowed it to moisten her lips, saying that her work was done, that she was ready to die, and that her life had long ago been offered for the master. Nor would she allow the master to indulge her with regard to her own son. He was in exile, deservedly, and the shogun asked her permission to pardon him, in the belief of possible amendment. She refused, bidding Iyémitsŭ to remember his lesson: that the law of the country was above all things, and that she had never expected such words from him. Moreover, that had he revoked the law for her, she could not die in peace.
There is a Spartan politeness in all this, for which I think the stories worth saving to you.
- source :


At Imamiya shrine 今宮神社 , you can get unique charms or talismans. One of them is the
tamanokoshi (marry into the purple) charm 玉の輿お守り.
It is a vivid navy blue and printed with the designs of Kyoto vegetables.

This charm is derived from an old story:

Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-51), the 3rd Edo shogun, fell in love with a beautiful girl named Otama, who was born in Kyoto’s Nishijin weaving district as the daughter of a greengrocer. Iemitsu took Otama as a concubine and she bore him a son, who later became the 5th Edo shogun, Tokugawa Ietsuna.
In 1651, when Iemitsu died, Otama became a Buddhist nun under the name Keishoin. She had kept Nishijin in mind even after achieving a high status, and she seems to have exerted herself to build a temple, revive the Yasurai Matsuri (which had been suspended), and support Nishijin after she heard of the ruin of Imamiya Shrine.
The guardian gods of Nishijin also protect Imamiya Shrine, so people wished for the prosperity of the Nishijin area. Local residents say that the word “tamanokoshi” can be traced back to Otama’s story, and anyone who wants to become a “Cinderella”, or simply be happy, can visit this shrine to buy this charm.
source :


. Sanpooji 三寶寺 / 三宝寺 Sanpo-Ji - Nerima .

The third Shogun, 将軍家光 Tokugawa Iemitsu, often passed here during his falcon hunting and a special gate was constructed later for him to go through, 御成門 Onari-Mon, now the oldest existing building in the temple complex.


reimuzoo 霊夢像 Reimuzo, Oracle Dream Image
When Iemitsu was ill later in his life, he had dreams of Ieyasu.
He orderd the painter Kano Tan'yū to create an image after his dream vision.
37 of these dreams are well documented. “dream” portraits.

. . . CLICK here for more Photos !

Visions of the Dead: Kano Tan'yū's Paintings of Tokugawa Iemitsu's Dreams
Karen M. Gerhart / Monumenta Nipponica 2004
- source : -


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. Kasuga no Tsubone 春日局 Lady Kasuga . - (1597 - 1643)


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